Having a post-secondary education can also benefit you financially. Without a post-secondary education, there are a number of jobs for which you will not even be eligible for consideration. For many positions, the starting salary differs depending on the level of education that you have completed. Many times, pay raises and promotions are also tied to completion of post-secondary education programs. Therefore, while you might be able to gain entry to a particular occupation without a post-secondary education, you can’t move up –or make more money– until you complete additional studies.
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Monday, April 30th, 2007
The main focus of Humanistic psychology study is based on conscious consciousness, morals
and theoretical thinking. These include the spiritual experiences and the
beliefs that people live by. Emerging in the 1950’s and 1960’s,
humanism is about rewarding yourself, and places great importance on
the individual and their own individuality. Personality depends on
what people believe and how they perceive the world and a major factor
in this learning theory is that people are seen as freely exercising
choice over how to behave. They are the architects of their own lives
and ‘personal agents’ in their own psychological growth.
There are many objectives of the humanistic view of education, as
described by Gage and Berliner. These include a promotion of
positive self-direction and independence, the ability to take
responsibility for what is learned, an emphasis on student centered
teaching, and the development of social skills and respect for
students feelings and aspirations, thus allowing them the right to
self-determination. Feelings are as important as facts and the current
and future welfare of students is foremost. In order to develop these
objectives certain principles must be in place. Students will learn
best what they want and need to know. Self directed learning increases
knowledge. Rogers says that self directed learning in schools increases curiosity, encourages students to take responsibility for their own development and promotes personal and
academic growth. However, knowing how to learn is more important than
acquiring a lot of knowledge and self-evaluation is the only
meaningful judgment of a student’s work. The worth and rights of
individuals needs to be respected and there has to be openness, honesty and
selflessness in order for trust to be gained.
Humanistic psychology is sometimes referred to as the ‘Third Force’ in
psychology. As mentioned earlier, it is often said that this was a backlash against the
Behaviorist emphasis on scientific method, which was seen as losing
sight of the human being. Scientific method is largely inappropriate
for studying human experience, or at least, it does not go far enough.
As the name suggests, Humanistic psychology focuses on the subjective
experience of living rather than observable behavior.
There are a number of theories, which qualify as being Humanistic, two
of the best known being those of Carl Rogers and Abraham
Maslow. Rogers became probably the most influential of humanistic psychologists. He said that human nature is basically good and that people have a natural drive towards
Self-Actualization, meaning the achievement of their full potential.
This is the fundamental incentive behind the development of
To promote human welfare, Rogers maintains that people should relate
to one another with an ‘unconditional positive regard’, which is the
complete acceptance of another person as he or she is, much like the
love of a parent for a child.
Abraham Maslow, another founder of humanistic psychology, proposed
that people have a hierarchy of needs. The highest of these being
Although we are not fully aware of these needs, they are rather like
mental vitamins and if we are denied them, we can never be fully
mentally healthy. He observed that if we are lacking in any of these
needs, then difficult behavior is often the result. If the needs are
met, then mentally healthy behavior is the outcome. A child learns,
according to Maslow because he or she is inwardly driven and gains
reward from a sense of achievement that learning something difficult
provides. He also said that learning is not an end in itself but the
means to progress towards the height of self-development, which he
terms ’self actualization’. After the basic needs of physical survival
and safety, Maslow places the needs of belonging and love. The next
highest group of needs is covered by the term ‘esteem’, and at the
top of the hierarchy is the need for self-actualization (man’s desire
Beginning at an early age, children evaluate themselves and their own
actions. They learn that what they do is sometimes good and sometimes
bad. They develop a self-concept, an image of what they really are, and an ideal self, an image
of what they would like to be.
The primary focus of humanistic education is placed on the development
of the whole child placing a major emphasis on the regulatory and the
affective/emotional system. Huitt described this in his systems
model of human behavior.
Humanism concentrates upon the development of the child’s
self-concept. It is important for a child to feel good about itself,
and this involves them understanding their own strengths and
weaknesses and having a belief in their ability to improve. The
humanistic approach states that education is about creating a need
within the child and instilling self-motivation.
Because a child’s behavior is continuously being evaluated by parents
and others, sometimes positively and sometimes negatively, he soon
learns to distinguish between those thoughts and actions that are
considered good and those that are not. The poor experiences become
excluded from the self-concept, even though they may be quite valid or
natural and the good ones remain.
Obviously there must be certain restrictions on behavior and Rogers
suggests that the best approach is for the parents to recognize
children’s feelings as valid, while explaining any reasons for
With children, a high priority is placed on the development of their
personal growth and a sense of respect for oneself and other. They
need to be are taught to recognize their responsibility to the
community. A child’s growth in these areas prepares them for continued
success in future academic, personal and social situations.
Humanistic schools believe that emotional factors, personal growth and
development are of the highest values. They argue that these are
ignored in a society, which is unduly materialistic, objective and
mechanistic. Humanistic psychologists believe that society, schools
and colleges exist to meet the needs of the individual learner and not
the other way around. They believe that learners should be allowed to
pursue their own interests and talents in order to develop themselves
as fully as possible in
their own unique direction. Rogers said that ‘no-one should ever try
to learn something for which he sees no relevance’ and that learning
should be its own reward. The main principles
suggested by humanistic psychologists have been highly influential,
especially in adult education and training.
A humanistic teacher aims for good things and the approaches are
highly dependent on the capabilities of the teacher.
There are a variety of ways in which teachers can implement the
humanistic view towards education. Some of these include allowing
students to have a choice in the selection of tasks and activities
whenever possible and helping them to set realistic goals for
themselves. It is important to have students participating in group
work, in order to develop social and affective skills. Teachers need
to act more as facilitators in the classroom and available when
appropriate and they need to be role models constantly working on
themselves to become better people. This is often known as ‘Open
The humanistic curriculum is based on establishing productive social
and working relationships with others. It is a part of everything the
child does within the school setting. The expectations and
consequences are age appropriate. Just as the academic curriculum
responds to the developing cognitive skills of the children so too
does the social curriculum. It encourages growth in responsibility,
independence and decision making. Children are allowed and actually
encouraged to make choices and accept the consequences for their
actions, and mistakes are treated as opportunities for learning. The
children learn to care about themselves and others and to value the
quality of their work. By placing emphasis on the positive, a
classroom environment is created whereby children are encouraged and
become self-reliant. They care about doing their best and value the
quality of their work. The emphasis is on co-operation and not
competition and this has a positive effect on classroom behavior
whilst also improving academic learning. Skills such as listening,
decision making and problem solving all need to be discussed, modeled
and practiced in order for children to be successful in their groups.
A large commitment of time is required to implement the social
social skills and nurturing moral growth is a developmental process.
The development of interpersonal skills is also taught in order for
children to recognize the feelings of others and deal with hurt and
misunderstanding through the use of language. Opportunities are
provided for children to develop and to be taught listening,
communication and leadership skills and opportunities are provided for
teamwork. Children are assisted to become conscious of their own
feelings and they are helped to develop a vocabulary with which to
express these feelings. This then has the effect of making them become
self-confident, focused and independent.
The Montessori school uses humanistic learning theories to teach
pupils, promoting knowledge, beauty and fulfillment.
Dr Maria Montessori was the founder of these schools and many of her
ideas have now been adapted into ‘mainstream’ education. The
Montessori school was founded in 1965 and its education encourages
intellectual, social, physical, creative and moral development,
preparing students for academic excellence, and responsible, caring
lives. A child attending these schools will be exposed to methods of
teaching, which promote the development of the whole child,
facilitating the growth of the inner discipline and cultivating the
child’s own natural joy in learning. Montessori takes advantage of
each child’s unique sensitivities and offers exercises in language
development, sensorimotor development, reading, mathematics, physical
and natural sciences, geography and cultural studies, music, art,
drama and body movements. These are all activities used in practical
life. The materials and activities are designed to help the child to
progress at their own rate. Young children do not have to join in on
group activities if they do not wish, as they have a right to keep
working at their own exercises. They may also observe instead of
joining in if they wish but must not interfere or become disruptive.
They are not forced to share with another child if they wish to work
by themselves. As mentioned earlier, many of the ideas of Maria
Montessori have been adapted and are used in ‘mainstream’ schools but
not without their problems. Children are still compelled to attend and
there are still rules to abide by. There is little choice in the
curriculum content, and the sharing of teacher’s time and resources
with other students’ could cause problems for children with differing
abilities and experience. Also pupils have to put up with an
instructional tempo that is often either too fast or too slow.
Humanistic learning styles are all based on intrinsic learning
principles. Intrinsic learning is learning that fructifies in
self-actualization or growing to full humanness.
Intrinsic learning is learning to be a person. In opposition, must of
classroom teaching is of the extrinsic variety. Pleasing the teacher
or aiming for certain grades. Once rewards terminate then learning
ceases. In intrinsic learning, learning continues despite the presence
or absence of external rewards because growth towards psychological
health and the satisfaction gained from self actualization is an
In concluding, I can only say that the purpose of humanistic education
is to provide a foundation for personal growth and development so that
learning will continue throughout life in a self directed manner
I have discussed the theoretical approach of humanism and have
evaluated its principles, assumptions and methods used for teaching
child learners. I have brought in the contributions of two individual
theorists, Maslow and Rogers and have discussed their work.
Rogers developed client centered therapy putting the client and
facilitator on a more equal footing and Maslow developed a hierarchy
of needs giving us ideas about personal growth.
Humanism for the individual means that we must accept responsibility
for our own lives and that we should enjoy life to the full in ways
that respect the well being of others.
Humanistic psychology has given us a new, global model of human
behavior that is refreshingly different from the dominant
deterministic approaches of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
We can see the self-initiated learning is the most lasting and
pervasive. We can also see that significant learning takes place when
the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the
Humanistic techniques have wide applications after schooling and a
good, solid foundation in an educational setting will provide a basis
for the future when in the workplace, personal relationships and in
further education. Humanism has helped us to a better understanding of
such diverse things as how people experience joy or face
death, and with children, has developed self confident, focused and
independent learners who continue to learn in a self directed manner,
following their own intrinsic interests growing to their full
Mary Anne has been writing for
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Monday, April 30th, 2007
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a medical condition. It is caused by genetic factors that result in certain neurological differences. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comes in various forms, and there are five or six different types of ADHD.
In the DSM-IV Diagnostic manual, each of these forms, or “types” of ADHD falls under the diagnostic category of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main category is then subdivided into ADHD Inattentive Type, or ADHD Impulsive-Hyperactive Type, or ADHD Combined Type. In the recent past, the terms attention deficit disorder “with” or “without” hyperactivity were also commonly used. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comes in various forms, and truly, no two ADD or ADHD kids are exactly alike.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder might affect one, two, or several areas of the brain, resulting in several different “styles″ or “profiles″ of children (and adults) with ADD ADHD.
These different profiles impact performance in these four areas:
First, problems with Attention.
Second, problems with a lack of Impulse Control.
Third, problems with Over-activity or motor restlessness,
Fourth, a problem which is not yet an “official” problem found in the diagnostic manuals, but ought to be: being easily Bored.
A few other important characteristics of this disorder are:
1) That it is SEEN IN MOST SITUATIONS, not just at school, or just in the home. When the problem is seen only at home, we then would wonder if perhaps the child is depressed, or if the child is just being non-compliant with the parents;
2) That the problems are apparent BEFORE the AGE OF SEVEN (7). Since Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is thought to be a neurologically based disorder, we would expect that, outside of acquiring its symptoms from a head injury, the individual with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder would have been born with the disorder. Even though the disorder might not become much of a problem until the second or third grade when the school work becomes more demanding, one would expect that at least some of the symptoms were noted before the age of seven.
About one of twenty people, children and adults, have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a significant problem for these people, and for their families. Learn more about
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Monday, April 30th, 2007
Find Metaphysical Training in the United States and Canada. With the expansion of alternative and healing arts schools, it is only natural that metaphysical training workshops and seminars have too, evolved. Today, individuals can enroll in a number of metaphysical training classes that entail studies in energy healing (i.e. reiki, chakra balancing, etc.) or in a variety of other fascinating topics.
Some metaphysical training workshops teach techniques in how to “hone-in” to psychic abilities; fine-tuning innate ways to reveal hidden talents. Other metaphysical training programs may be more comprehensive in nature, instructing in meditation, spirituality and yoga.
While many metaphysical and alternative healing schools provide metaphysical training and seminars, a number of these enlightening programs are sometimes conveyed through public community and learning centers. For example, there are a few instructional opportunities for individuals to learn about kinesiology (an energetic form of muscle testing). Though this is commonly used in conjunction with an assortment of massage therapies, it is also facilitated as an energy healing instrument.
Metaphysical training seminars also exist as introductory lessons in spiritual mysticism, shamanism, distance healing, higher philosophy, and other diverse subject matter. An intriguing metaphysical training course that one might choose may be in symbolism and prophesizing - for instance, if you’ve ever thought about reading Runes, the Tarot or discovering hidden secrets through remote viewing, then there are metaphysical workshops that allow you to learn more about these unique forecasting tools.
Some metaphysical training seminars are great for those seeking to improve mind-body-spirit awareness. Within these courses of study, are defining wisdoms of universal laws and human interaction with these laws. In addition, metaphysical training workshops may lead to professional certificates of completion, as well as continuing education credits.* (CE’s may be applied to spiritual theology, holistic healing arts, and metaphysical healing arts.)
In general, if you’ve ever wanted to know what makes the world around you tick, paranormal phenomena, how energy transforms, or basic quantum physics - then participating in one of several metaphysical training classes may afford you with the knowledge you’ve been seeking.
If you (or someone you know) are interested in finding metaphysical training, let career training within fast-growing industries like massage therapy, cosmetology, acupuncture, oriental medicine, Reiki, and others get you started! school.holisticjunction.com/clickcount.php?id=6634739&goto= holisticjunction.com/search.cfm Explore career school programs near you.
Metaphysical Training: Workshops and Seminars
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The CollegeBound Network
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Resource Box: CarolAnn Bailey-Lloyd - Freelance Writer and Web Consultant for HolisticJunction.com, in association with CollegeSurfing.com - Educational Resources for holisticjunction.com/categories/HAD/metaphysical-schools.html Metaphysical Training, holisticjunction.com/categories/HAD/metaphysical-studies.html Metaphysical Courses, and other Energy Healing Schools.
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Sunday, April 29th, 2007
The University of Miami, often called UM or the U, is a private university located in Coral Gables, Florida. Coral Gables is close to Miami, Florida. The University of Miami was founded in 1925 and currently has a total student body of just over 15,000. Students at the University of Miami had an average GPA of 4.0 and SAT score of 1260 upon entering the university in 2006. Over sixty-two percent of University of Miami students who entered the university in 2006 were in the top 10 percent of their high school class.
The University of Miami’s main campus is spread across 240 acres in Coral Gables. There are also several satellite campuses of the University of Miami, such as the Rosensetiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science located on Virginia Key. The University of Miami is divided into eight undergraduate academic schools. The three graduate level schools at the University of Miami are the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and the Rosensetial School.
The school colors of the University of Miami are orange, green, and white. These colors represent the fruit, leaves, and blossoms of the orange tree, which are prevalent on the University of Miami campus. The sports teams of University of Miami are called the Miami Hurricanes. The Hurricanes are local rivals with the Florida State University Seminoles and the University of Florida Gators.
The official school mascot of the University of Miami is Sebastian the Ibis. The Ibis was selected as University of Miami’s mascot as a symbol of leadership and courage. According to legend, the Ibis is the last animal to flee a coming hurricane, and the first animal to reappear after a storm. The University of Miami is also symbolized by a green and orange letter U. This letter is used primarily for the University of Miami sports teams.
© Cookgroup Marketing LLC - All Rights Reserved. This article brought to you by Everything-Miami.com/ www.Everything-Miami.com/ . You may freely reprint this article on your website or in your newsletter provided this courtesy notice, author name, and URL remain intact. Jason Albright is a contributing editor at Cookgroup Marketing LLC. His background is with lifestyle topics including: Gardening, Outdoor Living, Home Decor & Travel Destinations.
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Sunday, April 29th, 2007
For International Students
United States of America has been the top most destination for international students, and why not, the best colleges in almost any field are in this great country. Every year thousands of international students come to USA for graduation/other higher degrees in Engineering, Medicine, Management, Law etc. The information below is focused on getting a Student visa (often referred as F1 or F-1 visa), some useful information around the college application procedure and prospects after you complete your study are also covered.
Visa or immigration document allows a foreign citizen to travel to a U.S. port-of entry (ex Airport) and request permission from the U.S. immigration officer to enter the United States.
STEP 1: EXAMS REQUIRED TO BE ELIGIBLE FOR STUDENT VISA
a) Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL): English is the national language of USA. Earlier it use to be paper based exam but these days it’s mostly given on the internet from designated centers all over the world. These scores are used by many other countries. Although rare but some English speaking nations may be exempted from TOEFL. b) Specialization specific exam ( Ex: GRE / GMAT / SAT) : Depending on which specific branch or level (Graduation/Under-Grad etc) of education, there is a test for that very specific field. Tests centers are all over the world and mostly computer based. A management level applicant will give GMAT, Engineering student will give GRE etc. Depending on these scores there will be a cut-off for each institution to which you can apply. Not all institutions can allow foreign students; they should have permission from USCIS (United States Citizenship and immigration Services) to do so.
STEP 2: STUDENT VISA (F-1 Visa)
The student should have a non-immigrant intent i.e. he/she is coming to USA genuinely for educational purposes only and not just to enter in the country for immigration purpose. Students must also demonstrate that they have the financial resources to study without the need to engage in unauthorized or illegal employment.
Institutions need these following documents
- Written application to the school
- Institution’s qualification criteria for admission (i.e. TOEFL / SAT/ GRE etc.)
- Student’s prior academic record and financial support evidence.
- An acceptance letter allowing the student to study.
After this institutions can issue Form I-20 needed for F-1 Student visa. Students must take that form to their nearest US consulate along with Passport, Visa fee, Form OF-156 (Application for a Nonimmigrant Visa), documents indicating evidence of financial support and documents proving sufficient ties to home country.
One should explore the opportunity of scholarships given by Institutions to some students with high scores or exceptional ability in sports. Also students may qualify to work part time. Check your institution for those details.
STEP 3: ENTERING USA
At the port of Entry ( ex Airport), the students must present all the documents including passport, I-20, Documents from Institution. The immigration officer after verification will issue an I-94 Arrival/Departure Record that contains a unique number. Keep this document safe, probably attached to your passport. Once you arrive on campus, you should report immediately to the office that is responsible for assisting international students and scholars.
STEP 4: LIFE / CAREER AFTER COMPLETING YOUR EDUCATION
Often US companies/employers may come on campus to recruit appropriate students for their organization. If you are the one selected then the employer must file for your working visa ( usually referred as the H-1 visa). Good news !! US Govt. has a special H-1 quota presently at 20,000 visa’s (number can change with time) for students who do their graduation in USA.
If the student is not offered H-1 visa, and not pursuing studies in USA anymore, the individual must return back to their home country.
OTHER STUDENT VISA’s
* J-1, or Exchange Visitor. Students participating in an exchange visitor program in the U.S
* M-1, or Student Visa Those who will be engaged in non-academic or vocational study or training.
* B-2 prospective student visa A prospective student, who has not yet decided on a school, can later apply for F-1 Visa.
Immigration Law’s change very often and sometimes have specific details. It is highly recommended to consult an Immigration Attorney or expert personally to get an update on latest form and procedures before applying for a Student visa. There is very useful information also located at educationusa.state.gov/usvisa.htm″ target=”_new educationusa.state.gov
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A leading Name for Travel and Tourism information
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Sunday, April 29th, 2007
Currently there are robotics competitions going on across America and almost every single major university as a robotics program along with degrees in computer sciences, robotics and artificial intelligence. There is no doubt within the next decade that the field of artificial intelligence and robotic androids will come of age. In fact currently artificial intelligence designers are trying to make business decision computers and thus your future boss could be an android. That is to say if you do not lose your job first to a robotic system in manufacturing.
Academia has assured us that we will not have to worry about robots taking over the world in causing Armageddon, but how can we be so sure? After all, right now they′re only experimenting and building prototypes. Right now all we see is unmanned aerial vehicles in the military, robotics lawnmowers and those little nifty robotic vacuum cleaners you can buy for your home. But in the future we will have robotic artificial intelligence armies, with no people. Half of the U.S. Automaker manufacturing facilities currently use robotics to build cars. All or most all car washes in the United States use robotics and more and more industries are turning towards robotics and artificial intelligence systems to run things, rather than people.
This is great for shareholders equity and quarterly profits, yet anyone who has been downsized due to the robotics efficiency probably has a different perspective on this issue. Will the human race become slaves to robotic systems? We all know that in every civilization there is a point when government gets so large and has so much control that no longer needs to people at once served. Who is to say that government will not employ robots to cut costs and save taxpayers money? At that point the robots will be running us and what if they decided we are no longer needed. Will it matter then if academia promised us that their artificial intelligent robotic research would not harm us? I dare to ask this question even though I am very pro robotics. Consider this in 2006.
“Lance Winslow” - Online WorldThinkTank.net/wttbbs/ Think Tank forum board. If you have innovative thoughts and unique perspectives, come think with Lance in the Online Think Tank and solve the problems of the World WorldThinkTank.net www.WorldThinkTank.net/
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Sunday, April 29th, 2007
The fetish for food and the passion for preparing them do not really mean that most professionals of the culinary arts industry have obesity problems. In fact, most people who have earned their degree and are part of the culinary arts industry are health-conscious. Yes, some of them work as nutritionists and dietitians which are basically responsible for ensuring that people eat the right kinds of foods.
There are several number of culinary arts institutions all over the country. Each one offers varied programs than the other. However, all of them claim to offer extensive training. If you’re thinking of a career in the culinary arts industry, choosing the best school and the right program for you should be done carefully.
First of all, just because a culinary arts school is popular, does not mean that it can provide you with the finest training for you. Before you consider a particular institution, make sure you know your strengths. Are you geared towards baking and pastry? Or would you rather be in the hospitality management? However, if you are yet undecided and you haven’t really figured out which career path in the culinary arts industry you’d like to follow, it is a good idea to take up the Associate Degree. It is a good starting point for those who are still trying to find their niche in the culinary arts industry.
People with formal education and training on culinary arts have basically a big chance of landing a good career in the culinary arts industry. This is a highly-competitive field, but a growing one at that. It is even found out that the culinary arts industry is one of the fastest-growing in the country today.
Culinary arts education entails action, excitement and meeting people. Expect to be mystified by the wonderful world of the culinary arts industry. It is even predicted to be the leader in providing jobs and revenue in a few years. There are several promising careers that the culinary arts industry can offer you. Whether you like to be a chef, a restaurateur, or a food researcher, all these can be realized if you have what it takes to be in the culinary arts industry.
If you have the passion, the right attitude, and a strong drive to excel, then it is time to start scouting for the right culinary school. There are schools that provide programs with extensive hands-on training, externship, and offers assistance in finding you a good career opportunity. There is a wide variety of jobs that you can possibly have after getting your formal education. The most important thing is you are committed to your craft and you have the urge to hone your skills.
Milos Pesic is a successful webmaster and owner of popular and comprehensive culinary.need-to-know.net/ Culinary Arts information site. For more articles and resources on Cooking and Culinary Arts related topics, visit his site at:
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Saturday, April 28th, 2007
The chemical properties of a substance (in other words what other atoms will it bond with, if it is liquid at room temperature, if it is flammable, and so on) are essentially decided by the electrons on the outermost energy level of the atom. As we described in part one of this series, the electrons surrounding the atom cannot just have any energy, but instead group into separate energy levels; the electrons on the outermost energy level tend to be further away from the nucleus and less tightly connected to it. Thus the outermost electrons will be the first to escape from the atom if the atom comes in contact with a strong enough external force.
The important principle here is that atoms are most stable when they have energy levels that are full of electrons. Just as important is the fact that atoms are least stable when the outermost energy level is almost empty or almost full. These unstable atoms can form a bond with other unstable atoms so they all become stable, and the result is called a molecule.
There are different ways in which atoms can bond together. The most common is covalent bonding, which can happen when an atom with almost full energy levels comes in contact with another atom with almost full levels. The atoms ’share’ outer electrons in such a way that both their outer energy levels are filled. The attraction between the two atoms comes from the fact that both positively-charged nuclei are now attracted to the outer electrons. Covalent bonding can take place between more than two atoms: for example, two hydrogen atoms covalently bond with oxygen to form water.
If an atom has only one electron in its outer energy level and it comes into contact with another atom who needs one electron to fill its outer energy level, then the electron from the first atom can travel to the second atom so both have full outer energy levels. However, now the first atom is positively charged and the second is negatively charged so they both attract. This is called ionic bonding and it happens with sodium and chloride in the case of salt. In nature, pure ionic bonding is never found, generally being mixed to a greater or lesser degree with covalent bonding.
in addition atoms and molecules of the same kind can also come together without losing their individual identity. They form solids if the bonds between atoms are strong enough that each atom cannot move. Heating a solid adds energy to each of the atoms. If enough energy is added, the bonding between atoms might be loosened enough allowing atoms to move with the bonds: this is the liquid state. Alternatively, a chemical reaction might ensue where a lot of heat and light is released: in other words, the solid might burst into flames! Whether it does one or the other depends on the structure of the atoms or molecules and on the availability of other atoms to feed any chemical reaction (i.e a wood fire needs plenty of oxygen). Similarly if enough energy is added to a liquid, all bonds can be broken, and atoms or molecules move around freely in a gaseous state.
A unique kind of bonding is found in metals, where all the atoms are arranged in a lattice and they all share electrons which are free to move around the place. Since the atoms are donating these ‘free electrons’ they are positively charged and therefore are strongly attracted to these electrons. Since electricity involves the flow of electrons, this makes metals very good conductors. Also since the atoms are arranged in a lattice, this allows vibrations caused by heating to spread much faster, making metals also very good conductors of heat. Metallic bonding also gives metals other properties such as the ability to be bent and hammered into any shape, and their shiny surface.
The author, Shane Magee, has a Ph.D in particle physics. This is the second in a series of articles exploring the concepts, structure and history of the atom. His srichinmoycentre.org/Members/shane_magee personal blog contains a mixture of anecdotes and reflections on science, spirituality and life in general.
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Saturday, April 28th, 2007
Why won’t Tennessee let me be a Classroom Music Teacher?
I applied for the Teach Tennessee program and was turned down. What the massive bureaucracy of the Dept. of Education fails to see is that licensure merely means persons have successfully jumped through a series of hoops. It no more guarantees that a teacher knows how to teach, has a gift to teach, likes to teach, or even wants to teach than an M.D. guarantees a doctor will compassionately care for his patients.
My life experience is worth more than 12 credit hours of teacher education and one year of internship. I work for an enzymologist in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Recently the American Chemical Society appointed my boss Editor-in-Chief for the science journal Biochemistry. He assigned me to train a new hire to be the office supervisor. I had to familiarize her with all aspects of my job as an editorial assistant, from manuscript receipt through each step of the peer review process to final disposition (acceptance/rejection). I sat with her for several weeks at the computer and took her through all the motions of utilizing the multiple databases involved while she took notes and asked questions. For every new concept, I made sure she got hands on experience at the computer, repeating the task until she felt confident. In turn, when another editorial assistant was added to the staff, she was able to teach him.
At a previous post, for the Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, housed in the Vanderbilt School of Engineering, I worked alongside a young black woman with a degree in psychology from MTSU. I was the editorial assistant and she was the journal secretary. We came from very different social, educational, cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Her pattern of learning was to carry on the patterns handed down to her by predecessors. Mine was to find new and better ways to accomplish the task at hand. On this point we clashed mildly, although we learned to respect and accept each other’s differences in order to work together. We remain friends to this day.
As a piano teacher at Belmont Academy, many diverse types of learners enter my studio. One unique young man who came to me recently has Asperger’s Syndrome, a mild form of autism. He graduated high school with honors, but is not pursuing college at present. His mother, a therapist, screened me before bringing Casey for lessons, since he had been kicked out of various classes for behavioral reasons, including a negative encounter with a music teacher. I assured her I had the patience to handle him, being myself the father of a mentally retarded adult. Casey and I hit it off right away, and it was not hard to find what he responded to. I tailored our lessons to fit his taste in music and his uncanny ability to learn by imitation. I’ve learned to sense when he tires of the academic approach using a text method, and at that point switch gears to focus on playing by ear, or exchanging stories (he is a wealth of trivia), or taking a look at a downloaded video game theme. He is continuing with me into the summer session, and I expect will do so beyond that.
During an 8-year position as a choir director for an Anglican congregation in Franklin, I held weekly rehearsals with an adult choir that included high schoolers. It was my duty to teach them a large volume of hymns, anthems and responsorial chants every week in accordance with the lectionary in the orthodox tradition. About two dozen persons of widely disparate ability were under my charge. Hymns and chants were reinforced on a weekly basis for each Sunday. Anthems, however, required about six weeks of preparation from introduction to performance. I devised a teaching plan for mid-week rehearsals and taught each piece in a sequential manner, incorporating more refined elements each week until the product was polished. The greatest advance I made with this group in the areas of critical thinking, problem solving and performance skills, was to teach them to read music. Prior to my arrival, they depended on a leader who conducted everything — beats, entrances, dynamics, phrasing, cut offs, and so on. As a choirmaster-organist, my hands were occupied, so I taught them to read by demonstration, verbal instruction, notation on a dry-erase board, and even a Sunday School class on “How to Read Music” offered to the entire parish using a Cokesbury teacher’s guide and student worksheets. The result was that they no longer needed to be spoon-fed by a conductor, but could interpret the printed score themselves while I gave minimal leadership from the organ.
In the choral leadership position discussed above, I treated weekly choir practice like a school classroom. “Students” were expected to arrive promptly at 7:00. I had a consistent lesson plan which allowed for a 10 minute snack break at 8:00, and then we would continue until dismissal around 8:45. By creating a friendly, casual environment, members were encouraged to interact socially. Although I taught intensively, I used humor and positive-reinforcement to enhance the learning atmosphere. To make the most of our facilities, I organized the choral library, revamped the shelving system so each member had a place for his or her folder and supplies, purchased new seating, new storage units, new risers and other equipment. I also bought and utilized management software related to downloading music materials and fulfilling copyright obligations. I regularly kept choristers abreast of plans and dates via email or phone, and even maintained a website as a reference source for those who might have to miss a rehearsal.
As a teaching assistant for three professors at the Blair School of Music, I was often called upon to substitute lecture. One day I was slated to speak on the operas of Richard Wagner before a class of 50 Vanderbilt students. I wanted them to get a sense of how the composer was “larger than life,” so before the class arrived, I set up an altar to Wagner using an LP jacket and candles. I darkened the lecture hall and played a CD as the students entered. This was to set a dramatic stage for reading a commentary by one of Wagner’s contemporaries exposing how eccentric he was. I felt using this approach made a more colorful impression than simply saying, “Turn to page 254 in your text and we’ll discuss Tannhauser.”
Another example is from my Navy journalism days. At the Defense Information School, we produced various educational audio-video materials. One production I was cited for was a taped video short where I taught the audience how to read music. Starting from scratch, I had them singing from the blackboard in about 10 minutes. A multi-media documentary presentation which I wrote, produced and directed from a closed-circuit television studio control room involved stills (photos and slides) and live action with two narrators on the subject of the “Holy Shroud of Turin.”
As an editorial assistant for the Journal of the American Chemical Society, I had oversight for helping authors properly format their papers to meet the printer’s specifications. This led to the development of a detailed guidesheet distributed to all authors whose papers had passed the peer review process to the point of being considered for publication. Quite understandably, many authors do not place as much weight on grammar, required content, size of figures, order of elements, font size, spacing, etc. as on the chemistry. Often the papers are written by persons from foreign countries or working in a university lab setting whose first langauge is not English. It has been part of my job to help them conform to very specific criteria so their research can be published. In this regard, I communicate with authors, mostly via email, concerning these requirements and how to meet them. I refer them to information located on the websites of the American Chemical Society, attach various forms (such as Copyright Transfers), and make every effort to teach them what to do to expedite getting their research in print.
Vanderbilt Human Resource Services provides an annual performance evaluation form for supervisors to use. It has room for general comments, a table listing key functions pertaining to the employee’s specific classification (rated from 1-5), a section on adherence to the Vanderbilt “Credo,” which has to do with customer focus, problem-solving, accountability, service excellence, respect for others and improvement (also rated from 1-5). As with any HR form, there are strengths and weaknesses, and the evaluation is only as accurate, fair and valid as the evaluator. In my case, my boss—who heads his own chemistry lab in the medical center—is a very remote supervisor who knows very little of my day in/day out activities. Due to focusing on research, he pays little attention to personnel matters, and has for 7 years allowed me to be relatively autonomous. While on one hand this is a positive thing evidencing a degree of trust, it also has resulted in a non-growth relationship where he knows nothing about me as a person. It has also led, at times, to what I believe are incorrect assessments of my performance. For example, I was recently criticized for coming in to work late. It turned out he forgot he had approved my working half-days that week! No test or tool can overcome inadequacies of the user. The best assessment strategy, in my opinion, is one based on personal interaction with the subject(s) where open, honest dialogue is the model.
After earning my B.Mus. in ‘85, I was unable to secure a church music leadership post due to intense competition. So while spending 5 years in public radio, I returned to school and earned a master’s in education in 1991. At that point, I was more competitive in the market and had several offers, one of which I accepted. Sadly, it turned out to be a mismatch. Eventually I compromised by pursuing church music as a part-time avocation only, which met with more success. My biggest mistake was to not seek teacher licensure when I was in school, but I had no way to know church work would be so problematic. In the meantime, as a part-time church musician, wedding organist and piano teacher, I have continued to improve myself via membership in professional organizations like the American Guild of Organists, Tennessee State Music Teachers Association, and the National Network of Lay Professionals (Episcopal). The AGO publishes a monthly professional journal and the local chapter holds monthly meetings featuring leaders in the field. I have also attended a summer workshop for music leaders in Colorado called the Evergreen Conference. I am a subscriber to FJH e-Notes, an electronic newsletter from FJH Music Co., publishers of the method I use in my studio at Belmont. In the university setting where I teach, interaction with other instructors helps keep me abreast of techniques. There are also seminars and workshops offered frequently. A few years back I entered the doctoral program in education at TSU but was unable to continue after one term due to family and work constraints.
I had a student from a disadvantaged family who applied for assistance through a school porgram. The administrator of the scholarship was The Community Foundation of Middle Tennessee (www.CFMT.org). I was called upon to be an advocate for this student and his family by writing a proposal and evaluation substantiating his need plus the potential benefits of studying with Belmont Academy. He studied with me successfully for two terms before CFMT changed their funding rules.
And if this is not enough life experience to be considered for the Teach Tennessee program, I maintain an informative website for my students and their parents (see 88keys.8m.net). It has been developed over the last 3-4 years as an aid to enrollees and prospective students, as well as a source for educational articles and opinions on pedagogy. I taught myself HTML in order to build this site, and continue to keep current on topics of interest to webmasters such as search engine optimization through newsletters like SiteProNews and Entireweb Newsletter. In my work for the chemistry journa, although it is not explicitly an educational endeavor, I am on a computer all day long, in touch with scientists around the world as well as other editorial offices and the ACS headquarters in Washington DC. As mentioned, I utilize technology to assist authors in getting their work published. The ACS has several databases, which are all synchronized: EWS (Editor Website), Paragon (for authors and readers), and Omnis 7 PR (peer review plus). I routinely use Adobe Acrobat, the Microsoft Office Suite (Excel, Word, PowerPoint, etc.), several mail programs (Mac Mail, Thunderbird, Entourage), a variety of web browsers (Firefox, Mozilla, Camino, Opera) and GIF/JPG editors such as Graphic Converter.
James Arthur Weinberg teaches piano, organ and theory at Belmont Academy, a division of Belmont University in Nashville TN. He is also organist at Belmont Heights Baptist Church and is an active wedding consultant and performer in middle Tennessee, paired with Highland Bagpiper Greg Cutcliff as the duo “The Highlanders.” More about Nashville Celtic Weddings may be found at campus.belmont.edu/weinbergj campus.belmont.edu/weinbergj